Thursday, May 19, 2011


Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Flag of PennsylvaniaState seal of Pennsylvania
Nickname(s): Keystone State; Quaker State;
Coal State; Oil State; State of Independence
Motto(s): Virtue, Liberty and Independence
Map of the United States with Pennsylvania highlighted
Official language(s)None (English, de facto)
Spoken language(s)English 91.6%
Spanish 3.1%
Pennsylvania Dutch
Largest cityPhiladelphia
Largest metro areaDelaware Valley
Area Ranked 33rd in the U.S.
 - Total46,055 sq mi
(119,283 km2)
 - Width280 miles (455 km)
 - Length160 miles (255 km)
 - % water2.7
 - Latitude39°43′ N to 42°16′ N
 - Longitude74°41′ W to 80°31′ W
Population Ranked 6th in the U.S.
 - Total12,702,379(2010.)
- Density283.9/sq mi  (109.6/km2)
Ranked 11th in the U.S.
 - Median income US$48,562 (26th)
 - Highest pointMount Davis
3,213 ft  (979 m)
 - Mean1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest pointDelaware River
0 ft  (0 m)
Before statehoodProvince of Pennsylvania
Admission to Union December 12, 1787 (2nd)
GovernorTom Corbett (R)
Lieutenant GovernorJim Cawley (R)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
 - Upper houseState Senate
 - Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsBob Casey, Jr. (D)
Pat Toomey (R)
U.S. House delegation12 Republicans, 7 Democrats 
Time zoneEastern: UTC-5/-4
AbbreviationsPA Penn. or Penna. US-PA
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania  is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jerseyto the east. The state's four most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, and Erie. The state capital is Harrisburg.
Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. As of the 2000, and 2010census, Pennsylvania has one of the largest European American populations and a strong African American population.


Counties of Pennsylvania
Map of Pennsylvania, showing major cities and roads
Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km2) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km2) are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States.
The bounds of the state are the Mason-Dixon Line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west, and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie. Pennsylvania borders six other states: New York to the north; New Jersey to the east; Delaware and Maryland to the southeast; West Virginia to the southwest, and Ohio to the west. Pennsylvania also shares a water border with Canada. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.
It has the cities of Philadelphia, York, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley), the tri-cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Hazleton in the northeast, and Erie in the northwest, Williamsport serves as the "hub" of the commonwealth's north-central region, with state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the central region of the commonwealth.


Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate. Greater Philadelphia has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the climate becomes markedly colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and winter snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly cities near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall, as an average of 10 tornadoes touch down each year in the state.
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities in Fahrenheit
East Stroudsburg35/1639/1749/2661/3672/4680/5585/5983/5875/5064/3851/3040/22
Philadelphia, Scranton, Harrisburg,
Pittsburgh, Erie, Allentown, East Stroudsburg